.widget.ContactForm { display: none; }

Επικοινωνία

Όνομα

Ηλεκτρονικό ταχυδρομείο *

Μήνυμα *

Τρίτη, 9 Μαρτίου 2021

New Research at Kleidi-Samikon


Introduction

Samikon lies on the west coast of the Peloponnese, at the western tip of the Lapithos mountain range, which runs in an east-west direction across Triphylia. The site is mentioned by Strabo (8.3.13-20) and Pausanias (5.5.3-11; 5.6.1-6) and is unequivocally identified with the Classical-Hellenistic fortification above the modern village of Kato Samikon and north of Kaiafa Lake and the sulphur springs. Strabo and Pausanias refer both to the caves of the Anigriad nymphs and the stinking waters of the River Anigros, which flows into the sea here. The sulphur springs at Kaiafa are still active today and confirm the identification. The plain of Samikon was also the place of a famous sanctuary of Poseidon, which only Strabo mentions in his description of Triphylia. The Poseidon sanctuary formed a geographical point of reference within Strabo’s account, and any additional archaeological information on this small area is therefore of great importance2. The sanctuary has never been located, and the geography of the whole area must have changed considerably since antiquity.
Our first preliminary report is dedicated to new research at the site of Kleidi, which lies in the coastal plain below the Classical-Hellenistic fortress, to the southwest, and consists of a group of three small hills (fig.1).


Archaeological activity at the site goes back to the days of Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 19073, followed by excavations by Nicholas Yalouris in 1954, Eleni Papakonstantinou in the early 1980s, and, finally, Kostas Nikolentzos and Panagiotis Moutzouridis in 20074. These excavations established the existence of a Mycenaean habitation site on the largest (i.e. the northern) hill and related tombs at its northern and eastern foot respectively.
Today Kleidi lies in the coastal plain that covers the area of the former lagoon of Agoulinitsa, which was drained only in the late 1960s. Reports by travellers and scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries5 and a photograph taken by Dörpfeld in 1908 show that the lagoon extended close to the hill (fig. 2). This explains the key position of Kleidi, which monitored the one and only passage through the swamps until the drainage project.


The only road on more or less firm ground leading from north to south ran parallel to the railway tracks and turned here to the west towards the sand dunes, where it again turned to the south. Today, the railway tracks still follow the old course, whereas the modern National Road runs further inland, closer to the slope of Mount Lapithos.
It is entirely unclear how the situation was in antiquity, how close the seashore was to the Kleidi hills, and if there was an anchorage, as mentioned by Strabo (8.3.17). The reconstruction of the ancient landscape will be as interesting for the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods as for the Bronze Age. Regarding the Bronze Age in particular, we are involved in the larger study of Triphylia in the 2nd millennium BC, which comprises the evaluation of Mycenaean finds from Kakovatos, Kleidi, Epitalion, and Agios Dimitrios. It is, therefore, important to try to understand the position of Kleidi within the regional topography of Triphylia and the role it might have played as a potential harbour site.


Geodetic and geo-archaeological survey6
A multidisciplinary approach promises additional information on the history and archaeology of the area. In March 2017, we conducted a geodetic and geo-archaeological survey that will result in the first site plan and 3D model of the Kleidi hills and provide new information of the paleo-environment (fig.3). The final plan will map the location of the Late Bronze Age tombs, the approximate course of the so-called Cyclopean wall, which was discovered by Dörpfeld, and the results of the geo-archaeological investigations.
Geomorphological investigations were first carried out in 2017 in the topographical depression between the Kleidi hills and the opposite slopes to the east, with the objective of reconstructing the local paleo-landscape and to search for an appropriate harbour, which would have been used during the Bronze Age. Based on prospection using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and vibracoring (Nordmeyer drill rig RS 0/2.3), the first geomorphological and sedimentary data were collected.
ERT transect SAM ERT 12 runs from west to east in the plain of Kleidi (east of the north hill) (fig. 4). Due to the high subsurface moisture, the ERT depth section generally shows low resistivity values. The depth section of transect SAM ERT 12 shows a zone with higher resistivity values (>20 ohm.m) at the bottom, overlain by a zone with medium to high values (10-20 ohm.m) towards the east and a zone of very low electrical resistivity values (<10 ohm.m) towards the west. The latter may reflect a basin-like structure filled with fine-grained sediments that may also contain harbour-candidate deposits (fig.5).
Two vibracores were drilled at two separate locations, along ERT transect SAM ERT12, down to 8 m below surface (b.s.). Coring site SAM 5A is situated at the lower western part of transect SAM ERT 12 (fig.4). Three candidates for possible harbour deposits were found within the stratigraphic sequence of sediment core SAM 5A, clearly separated from each other by peat and palaeosol layers. The following age ranges were found by radiocarbon dating in 2017: harbour candidate I –around 812-791 cal BC, harbour candidate II– 2341/2206 calBC and 2273/2141 cal BC, harbour candidate III –between 4327/4241 cal BC and 3953/3806 cal BC.


ERT measurements were also taken south of the railway track (fig.4). Here, transect SAM ERT 17 revealed a distinct and clearly defined rectangular zone of very high resistivity values, which are clearly distinguished from the surrounding material. Another similar rectangular zone was measured some 15 m to the east. These structures most probably reflect a buried wall system comprising two walls, which were sliced by the ERT transect. High resistivity values suggest that the walls are made of solid rocky material, most probably limestone ashlar blocks. These discoveries are compatible with the large, most likely ancient boulders of shelly limestone found by the property owner at the eastern end of the ERT transect SAM 12 (fig. 6). These preliminary results illustrate potentially larger man-made structures that relate to ancient activities in the plain of Kleidi-Samikon, which further investigations may help to clarify.
In addition to these geo-archaeological investigations, the systematic study of the Bronze Age pottery from the 2007 excavations by Moutzouridis and Nikolentzos at the top of the plateau provides data for the chronology of the Bronze Age habitation and potential interregional relations.


The Bronze Age pottery
The ceramic material from Kleidi-Samikon shows the characteristic features of a Mycenaean settlement assemblage. In addition to a significant amount of plain fine tableware, such as different types of cups, kylikes, and bowls, the material comprises monochrome and pattern painted drinking and serving vessels. Transport and storage jars, e.g. amphorae and pithoi, and different shapes of cooking vessels supplement the assemblage.
Due to erosion and intensive agricultural activities on the Kleidi hills during the last century, the Late Bronze Age layers have been highly disturbed7. The material was therefore mainly evaluated according to stylistic and typological criteria. Despite these limitations, the pottery from Kleidi-Samikon offers essential information on the chronology of the habitation and the supra-regional relations of the site.

The site’s chronology
At the present stage of research, the main period of prehistoric occupation seems to cover the Late Bronze Age, but several pottery fragments appear to follow Middle Helladic traditions in respect to form and decoration, as matt-painted wares8, burnished surfaces and incised pottery of the so-called Adriatic ware (fig.8 nos 1-2), and the characteristic goblets and bowls with horizontal grooves (fig.8 no.4) indicate. The earliest offerings from the graves at Kleidi-Samikon, which were excavated by Yalouris in 1954 and Papakonstantinou in the early 1980s, suggest that the settlement was established in the transitional phase from Middle Helladic to Early Mycenaean9.
The earliest Mycenaean pottery from the settlement belongs to LH IIA and LH IIB and consists of typical shapes and decorative patterns of this period, including shallow cups with framed spirals (fig.8 nos3, 6), Keftiu cups with ripple pattern10, and Ephyraean goblets (fig.8 no.7). In contrast to the neighbouring and prominent site of Kakovatos, which was destroyed in LH IIB11, the pottery from Kleidi-Samikon suggests that the settlement continued throughout the transition from Early Mycenaean times to the palatial period. The presence of the stipple pattern (FM 78) on shallow cups (fig. 8 no. 8), in particular, which is typical for the LH IIB late and LHIIIA1 periods12, suggests the occupation of the Kleidi hills during this intermediate period.
The Mycenaean palatial period is well represented by LH IIIA and IIIB pottery. Large amounts of pattern painted and plain kylikes (fig. 8 nos 9-10) as well as kraters (fig.8 no.11) are suggestive of festivities such as those taking place at other sites of the Mycenaean core regions13. LH IIIB2 constitutes the latest phase of the Mycenaean occupation on the Kleidi hills, and the correspondent pottery consists of a considerable number of skyphoi with triglyphs and spiral patterns (fig.8 no.12), basins (fig.8 no.16) and some conical kylikes. By contrast, evidence for the post-palatial LH IIIC period is conspicuously absent. The decline or even the abandonment of sites in this period appears to be a widespread phenomenon in Mycenaean Greece but is particularly true for the southwestern Peloponnese, where LH IIIC pottery is limited to very few sites inMessenia14.
After a hiatus, the reoccupation of Kleidi appears to have started again in the Protogeometric period. This phase is marked by a couple of conical bases (fig.8 nos13, 15), which find their best parallels in the Early Iron Age pottery of Olympia15 and in contemporaneous burial contexts, which came to light in the surrounding region of Kleidi16.


Interregional relations
Besides its significance for the chronology of the site, the study of the pottery offers a perspective on the networks that Kleidi-Samikon maintained throughout the Mycenaean period. Relations with the southwestern Peloponnese are apparent especially in Early Mycenaean times. The distribution of LHI- IIA Mycenaean wheelmade lustrous decorated pottery in the southwestern Peloponnese illustrates the seamless connection between the sites of ancient Triphylia, including Kleidi- Samikon, with those of the same period in Messenia. This is in marked contrast to the region north of the Alpheios River, where Mycenaean pottery does not generally appear to spread before LH IIB. The distribution of Early Mycenaean pottery is therefore particularly important for the existence and identification of zones of cultural contact17.
Moreover, the LH IIA shallow cup with framed spiral and rather uncanonical monochrome interior (fig.8 no. 3) points to close relations with the southern Peloponnese. Parallels come from the immediately neighbouring sites of Epitalion and Kakovatos18 and again from Messenia, where examples have been published from Volimidia19 and Pylos20.
The presence of lustrous painted pottery and particular ceramic features, like those mentioned above, give the impression that Messenia and Triphylia shared common aspects of their material culture. However, the early Mycenaean material of Kleidi-Samikon also displays features that are common further north. At least two fragments of so-called ‘wishbone’ handles (fig.8 no.5) find their best counterparts in the northern Peloponnese, e.g. in Mygdalia21 and Pagona22 in the Patras region. At the beginning of the Late Bronze Age such handles, which are characterised by extensions reminiscent of rudimentary horns, were common in the Ionian Islands, Central Greece, Aetolia, and Boeotia. Similar types were in use in Thessaly and Macedonia from the end of the Early Helladic period until the Early Iron Age (table 1, fig.7)23.
Another northern feature appears on the fragment of an open vessel with a fringed scroll decoration (fig.8 no.14), which finds matt-painted parallels at Korakou in Corinthia24 and Krisa in Phokis25. Fringed geometric motives are a typical element of the matt-painted tradition of Central Greece26.
These features illustrate the incorporation of elements of different pottery traditions into the Triphylian pottery production. Moreover, imported vessels indicate interregional and supra-regional contacts. Recent petrographic analysis of the material revealed that the inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Kleidi had access to imports from the islands of Kythera and Aegina, both renowned for their industrial production of cooking pots and storage vessels in more recent periods27.
Although still at an early stage, the evaluation of the Kleidi pottery assemblage contributes to the understanding of Late Bronze Age Triphylia and its relations to other regions of Mycenaean Greece. In the early Mycenaean period connections especially with Messenia become apparent, but the material also suggests that the settlement lay at the interface of culturally different regions since features originating further north also impacted the local pottery production.


BIRGITTA EDER- JASMIN HUBER- EROFILI-IRIS KOLIA- PANAGIOTIS MOUTZOURIDISKONSTANTINOS NIKOLENTZOS- LEA OBROCKI- ANDREAS VÖTT
New Research at Kleidi-Samikon1


1 Birgitta Eder and Jasmin Huber gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF project P27568-G21) and the Institute for Aegean Prehistory. They wish to stress the highly productive and enjoyable cooperation with the Ephorate of Antiquities of Elis and its director Erofili-Iris Kolia, Kostas Nikolentzos and Panagiotis Moutzouridis (both from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports), Georgia Kordatzaki and Evangelia Kiriatzi from the Fitch Laboratory (British School at Athens), and Lea Obrocki and Andreas Vött from the Geographical Institute at Mainz University.
2 Cf. generally Meyer 1957, 74-79 with map on pl. V.
3 Dörpfeld 1908. Dörpfeld 1913, 112-13.
4 Γιαλούρης 1965. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1981. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1982. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1983. Νικολέντζος 2011, 53-60, 327-28. Nikolentzos – Moutzouridis 2021.
5 E.g. Leake 1830, 51-54. Partsch 1897, 14-15. Bisbee 1937, 525. Meyer 1957, 75-76.
6 Fieldwork was carried out with a permit by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports and in the framework of a Greek-Austrian
cooperation.
7 For a description of the stratigraphy and the built structures, see Nikolentzos – Moutzouridis (forthcoming).
8 Nikolentzos – Moutzouridis 2021.
9 Γιαλούρης 1965. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1981. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1982. Παπακωνσταντίνου 1983. See also Νικολέντζος 2011, 53-60.
10 Nikolentzos – Moutzouridis 2021.
11 Kakovatos: Eder 2011b, 96. Eder 2012, 93. Eder – Hadzi-Spiliopoulou 2021.
12 See e.g. Asine (Argolid), Area 1, LH IIB–IIIA1 (Santillo-Frizell 1980, 109, 128. Santillo-Frizell 1996, 1290). Mycenae (Argolid), Atreus Bothros, LH IIIA1 (late) (French 1964, 249, pl. 79a). Menelaion (Lakonia), construction of Mansion 2, LH IIB–IIIA1 (Catling 2009, 87 fig. 91 no. ET34-35).
13 For the significance of plain and painted pottery as feasting equipment, see Bendall 2004. Dabney et al. 2004. Hruby 2006. Jung 2006. Vitale 2008.
14 LH IIIC Messenia: McDonald – Hope Simpson 1972, 142-143. Davis et al. 1997, 451-453. Eder 1998, 141-178.
15 Eder 2006, pl. 63-65.
16 Samikon, Gryllos, and Salmone: Eder 2001a, 241-242 fig. 6, pl. 23 nos 1-2. Eder 2001c, 43-47 pl. 8, 12c. For Early Iron Age Triphylia and Elis, see Eder 2001a. Eder 2001b. Eder 2001c. Eder 2006.
17 Eder 2011a, 106-107. Huber et al. 2021.
18 Huber et al. 2021.
19 Volimidia/Kephalovryson (tomb B): Lolos 1987, 207 fig. 384. Mountjoy 1999, 323 no. 187.
20 Pylos: Blegen et al. 1973, fig. 249 no. 27. Mountjoy 1999, 323 fig. 108 no. 22.
21 Papazoglou-Manioudaki 2015, 315.
22 Stavropoulou-Gatsi – Karageorghis 2003, 98-104.
23 Some scholars have suggested a Cypriot origin for the mainland wishbone handles (Graziadio 1999. Stavropoulou-Gatsi –Karageorghis 2003, 100. Graziadio 2005, 331), but the early Late Bronze Age specimens in the Peloponnese are more likely the result of connections with central and northern Greece: Dietz – Moschos 2006, 54. Pavuk 2012, 66.
24 Davis 1979, 244 fig. 6 no. 69.
25 Van Effenterre – Jannoray 1938, 122 fig. 13 no. 18. Dor et al. 1960, pl. 32e.
26 Pavuk 2012, 54.
27 The petrographic study of the pottery from Triphylia is part of a larger project that is carried out together with Georgia Kordatzaki and Evangelia Kiriatzi from the Fitch Laboratory of the British School at Athens.

ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ.
Τον Μάρτιο του 2017, στο πλαίσιο ελληνο-αυστριακού ερευνητικού προγράμματος, πραγματοποιήθηκε τοπογραφική και γεωαρχαιολογική έρευνα στη θέση Κλειδί-Σαμικό Τριφυλίας, στη δυτική ακτή της Πελοποννήσου. Η στρατηγικής σημασίας θέση απλώνεται χαμηλότερα της υστεροκλασικής οχύρωσης του Σαμικού, είναι δε γνωστή από τις πρώτες έρευνες του Dörpfeld (1907) και από μετέπειτα ανασκαφικές έρευνες, που αποκάλυψαν οικίες και τάφους της Ύστερης Εποχής του Χαλκού. Στόχος του προγράμματος είναι η κατάρτιση του πρώτου τοπογραφικού χάρτη της θέσης, με όλες τις γνωστές κατασκευές, και η κατανόηση της παλαιογεωγραφίας της περιοχής. Παράλληλα, μέσω της συστηματικής μελέτης της κεραμικής που προήλθε από την ανασκαφή του 2007 στο Κλειδί αναμένεται να προσδιορισθούν οι βασικές περίοδοι χρήσης της θέσης.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Αδρύμη-Σισμάνη 2013: Β. Αδρύμη-Σισμάνη, Ο μυκηναϊκός οικισμός Διμηνίου 1977–1997. 20 χρόνια ανασκαφές, Βόλος 2013.
Aslanis 2005: I. Aslanis, Molyvopyrgos und das prähistorische Olynth (Agios Mamas). Zwei benachbarte mittelbronzezeitliche Siedlungen auf der Chalkidiki in Nordgriechenland, in: B. Horejs et al. (eds), Interpretationsraum Bronzezeit: Bernhard Hänsel von seinen Schülern gewidmet, Bonn 2005, 109-116.
Bendall 2004: L. Bendall, Fit for a king? Hierarchy, exclusion, aspiration and desire in the social structure of Mycenaean banqueting, in: P. Halstead – J. C. Barrett (eds), Food, Cuisine and Society in Prehistoric Greece, Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 5, Oxford 2004, 105-135.
Benton 1931-1932: S. Benton, The Ionian islands, ABSA 32 (1931-1932), 213-246.
Benton 1938-1939: S. Benton, Excavations in Ithaca, III: The cave at Polis, II, ABSA 39 (1938-1939), 1-51.
Benton – Waterhouse 1973: S. Benton – H. Waterhouse, Excavations in Ithaca: Tris Langadas, ABSA 68 (1973), 1-24.
Bisbee 1937: H. L. Bisbee, Samikon, Hesperia 6 (1937), 525-538.
Blegen et al. 1973: C. W. Blegen – M. Rawson – W. Taylour – W. P. Donovan, The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia, Vol. 3. Acropolis and Lower Town, Tholoi, Grave Circle, and Chamber Tombs, Discoveries outside the Citadel, Princeton 1973.
Catling 2009: H. W. Catling, Sparta: Menelaion I. The Bronze Age, 2 Volumes: Figures and Plates, ΑBSA Supplement 45, London 2009.
Caskey – Caskey 1960: J. L. Caskey – E. G. Caskey, The earliest settlements at Eutresis, Supplementary excavations, 1958, Hesperia 29:2 (1960) 126-167.
Γιαλούρης 1965: N. Γιαλούρης, Mυκηναϊκός τύμβoς Σαμικoύ, AΔ 20 (1965), Α΄, 6-40.
Dabney et al. 2004: M. K. Dabney – P. Halstead – P. Thomas, Mycenaean feasting on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea, in: J. C. Wright (ed.), The Mycenaean Feast, Hesperia Supplement 73, Princeton 2004, 197-215.
Davis 1979: J. L. Davis, Late Helladic I pottery from Korakou, Hesperia 48:3 (1979), 234-263.
Davis et al. 1997: J. L. Davis – S. E. Alcock – J. Bennet – Y. G. Lolos – C. W. Shelmerdine, The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project, Part I: Overview and the archaeological survey, Hesperia 66:3 (1997), 391-494.
Deoudi 2008: M. Deoudi, Ιθάκη. Die Polis-Höhle, Odysseus und die Nymphen, Thessaloniki 2008.
Dickinson 1977: O. Dickinson, The Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation, Göteborg 1977.
Dietz 1991: S. Dietz, The Argolid at the Transition to the Mycenaean Age. Studies in the Chronology and Cultural Development in the Shaft Grave Period, Copenhagen 1991.
Dietz – Moschos 2006: S. Dietz – I. Moschos (eds), Chalkis Aitolias I. The Prehistoric Periods, Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 7, Athens 2006.
Dietz – Stavropoulou-Gatsi 2010: S. Dietz – M. Stavropoulou-Gatsi, Pagona and the transition from Middle Helladic to Late Helladic in North-Western Peloponnese, in: Philippa-Touchais et al. 2010, 121-128.
Dor et al. 1960: L. Dor – J. Jannoray – H. Van Effenterre – M. Van Effenterre – M. Micheline, Kirrha. Étude de préhistoire phocidienne, Paris 1960.
Dörpfeld 1908: W. Dörpfeld, Die homerische Stadt Arene, AM 33 (1908), 320-322.
Dörpfeld 1913: W. Dörpfeld, Alt-Pylos III. Die Lage der homerischen Burg Pylos, AM 38 (1913), 97-139.
Eder 1998: B. Eder, Argolis, Lakonien, Messenien. Vom Ende der mykenischen Palastzeit bis zur Einwanderung der Dorier, Mykenische Studien 17, Vienna 1998.
Eder 2001a: B. Eder, Die Anfänge von Elis und Olympia: Zur Siedlungsgeschichte der Landschaft Elis am Übergang von der Spätbronze- zur Früheisenzeit, in: V. Mitsopoulos-Leon (ed.), Forschungen in der Peloponnes. Akten des Symposions anläßlich der Feier „100 Jahre Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Athen“, Athen 5.3.–7.3.1998, Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, Sonderschriften Band 38, Athens 2001, 233–243.
Eder 2001b: B. Eder, Continuity of Bronze Age cult at Olympia? The Evidence of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Pottery, in: R. Hägg – R. Laffineur (eds), POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Acts of the 8th International Aegean Conference at Göteborg University, 12-15 April 2000, Aegaeum 22, Liège 2001, 201-209.
Eder 2001c: B. Eder, Die submykenischen und protogeometrischen Gräber von Elis, Βιβλιοθήκη της εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας αρ. 209, Athens 2001.
Eder 2006: B. Eder, Die spätbronze- und früheisenzeitliche Keramik, in: H. Kyrieleis, Anfänge und Frühzeit des Heiligtums von Olympia. Die Ausgrabungen am Pelopion, Olympische Forschungen 31, Berlin 2006, 141-246.
Eder 2009: B. Eder, The Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age Transition in Western Greece: Submycenaean Studies, in: S. Deger-Jalkotzy – A. Bächle (eds), LH IIIC Chronology and Synchronisms III: LH IIIC Late and the Transition to the Early Iron Age, 23-24 February 2007, International Workshop at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Veröffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission 29, Vienna 2009, 133-149.
Eder 2011a: B. Eder, Zur historischen Geographie Triphyliens in mykenischer Zeit, in: F. Blakolmer – C. Reinholdt – J.Weilhartner – G. Nightingale (eds), Österreichische Forschungen zur ägäischen Bronzezeit 2009. Akten der Tagung am Fachbereich Altertumswissenschaften der Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg vom 6. bis 7. März 2009, Vienna 2011, 105- 117.
Eder 2011b: B. Eder, Kakovatos, Jahresbericht 2010, AA 2011 Beiheft (2011), 95-97.
Eder 2012: B. Eder, Kakovatos, Jahresbericht 2011, AA 2012 Beiheft (2012), 92-94.
Eder – Hadzi-Spiliopoulou 2021: B. Eder – G. Hadzi-Spiliopoulou, Strategies in space: the Early Mycenaean site of Kakovatos in Triphylia, in: Eder – Zavadil 2021, 61-84.
Eder– Zavadil 2021: B. Eder– M. Zavadil (eds), (Social) Place and Space in Early Mycenaean Greece, International Discussions in Mycenaean Archaeology, Athens 5-8 October 2016, Mykenische Studien 35, Vienna 2021.
Ευαγγελίδης 1930: Δ. Εὐαγγελίδης, Ανασκαφαί Δωδώνης και Παραμυθιάς, ΠΑΕ 85 (1930), 52–68.
French 1964: E. French, Late Helladic III A1 pottery from Mycenae, ABSA 59 (1964) 241-261.
Graziadio 1999: G. Graziadio, L’ adozione della wishbone handle nell’Egeo: un aspetto trascurato dei rapporti cipro-egei, in: Ἐπὶ πόντον πλαζόμενοι. Simposio italiano di Studi Egei dedicato a Luigi Bernabo Brea e Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Roma 18-20 febbraio 1998, Athens 1999, 365-377.
Graziadio 2005: G. Graziadio, The relations between the Aegean and Cyprus at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. An overview of the archaeological evidence, in: R. Laffineur – E. Greco (eds), EMPORIA. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Proceedings of the 10th International Aegean Conference, Athens, Italian School of Archaeology, 14-18 April 2004, Aegaeum 25, Liège/Austin 2005, 323-332.
Hammond 1931-1932: N. G. L. Hammond, Prehistoric Epirus and the Dorian invasion, ABSA 32 (1931-1932), 131-179.
Hanschmann 1981: E. Hanschmann, Die deutschen Ausgrabungen auf der Argissa-Magula in Thessalien IV. Die mittlere Bronzezeit, Bonn 1981.
Heurtley 1934-1935: W. A. Heurtley, Excavations in Ithaca, II, ABSA 35 (1934-1935), 1-44.
Heurtley 1939: W. A. Heurtley, Prehistoric Macedonia, Cambridge 1939.
Heurtley – Hutchinson 1925-1926: W. A. Heurtley – R. W. Hutchinson, Report on excavations at the toumba and tables of Vardaróftsa, ABSA 27 (1925-1926) 1-66.
Heurtley – Radford 1927-1928: W. A. Heurtley – C. A. R. Radford, Two prehistoric sites in Chalcidice, ABSA 29 (1927-1928) 117-186.
Hochstetter 1984: A. Hochstetter, Kastanas. Ausgrabungen in einem Siedlungshügel der Bronze- und Eisenzeit Makedoniens 1975-1979. Die handgemachte Keramik, Schichten 19 bis 1, Berlin 1984.
Horejs 2007: B. Horejs, Das prähistorische Olynth. Ausgrabungen in der Toumba Agios Mamas 1994-1996. Die spätbronzezeitliche handgemachte Keramik der Schichten 13 bis 1, Rahden 2007.
Hruby 2006: J. Hruby, Feasting and Ceramics: A View from the Palace of Nestor at Pylos, PhD thesis, University of Cincinnati, 2006.
Huber 2013: J. Huber, Epitalion an der Mündung des Alpheios: die mykenische Keramik, MA thesis, Albert-Ludwigs- Universität Freiburg, 2013.
Huber et al. 2021: J. Huber – G. Kordatzaki – E. Kiriatzi – H. Mommsen, Consuming local and imported pots at Kakovatos: Regional and Interregional Connections, in: Eder – Zavadil 2021, 107-132.
Jung 2006: R. Jung, Eύπoτoν πoτέριoν: Mykenische Keramik und mykenische Trinksitten in der Ägäis, in Syrien, Makedonien und Italien, in: A. Cardarelli – M. Pacciarelli – A. Vanzetti (eds), Studi di protostoria in onore di Renato Peroni, Florence 2006, 407-423.
Kunze 1934: E. Kunze, Orchomenos III: Die Keramik der frühen Bronzezeit, Munich 1934.
Leake 1830: W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea, vol. I, London 1830.
Lolos 1987: Y. G. Lolos, The Late Helladic I Pottery of the Southwestern Peloponnesos and its Local Characteristics, Göteborg 1987.
Maran 1992: J. Maran, Pevkakia Magula III. Die Mittlere Bronzezeit, Bonn 1992.
McDonald – Hope Simpson 1972: W. A. McDonald – R. Hope Simpson, Archaeological exploration, in: W. A. McDonald – G. R. Rapp (eds), The Minnesota Messenia Expedition. Reconstructing a Bronze Age Regional Environment, Minneapolis 1972, 117-147.
Meyer 1957: E. Meyer, Neue Peloponnesische Wanderungen, Bern 1957.
Mountjoy 1999: P. A. Mountjoy, Regional Mycenaean Decorated Pottery, Rahden 1999.
Νικολέντζος 2011: K. Νικολέντζος, Μυκηναϊκή Ηλεία. Πολιτιστική και πολιτική εξέλιξη, εθνολογικά δεδομένα και προβλήματα, τόμ. Α΄ (κείμενο), Athens 2011.
Nikolentzos – Moutzouridis 2021: K. Nikolentzos – P. Moutzouridis, The archaeological site of Samiko: An Early Mycenaean settlement in Northern Triphylia reconsidered, in: Eder – Zavadil 2021, 133-154.
Παπακωνσταντίνου 1981: E. Παπακωνσταντίνου, Κάτω Σαμικό, ΑΔ 36 (1981), Β΄1, 148-149.
Παπακωνσταντίνου 1982: E. Παπακωνσταντίνου, Κάτω Σαμικό, ΑΔ 37 (1982), Β΄1, 133-135.
Παπακωνσταντίνου 1983: E. Παπακωνσταντίνου, Κάτω Σαμικό, ΑΔ 38 (1983), Β΄1, 108-110.
Papazoglou-Manioudaki 2010: L. Papazoglou-Manioudaki, The Middle Helladic and the Late Helladic I periods at Aigion, in: Philippa-Touchais et al. 2010, 129-141.
Papazoglou-Manioudaki 2015: L. Papazoglou-Manioudaki, The Early Mycenaean settlement at Aigion in Achaea and the western frontier of the North-East Peloponnese, in: A.-L. Schallin – I. Tournavitou, Mycenaeans up to date. The Archaeology of the North-Eastern Peloponnese. Current Concepts and New Directions, Skrifter utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athen 56, Stockholm 2015, 313-324.
Partsch 1897: J. Partsch, Erläuterungen zu der Übersichtskarte der Pisatis, in: E. Curtius – F. Adler (eds), Olympia: die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung (Textband 1): Topographie und Geschichte, Berlin 1897, 1-15.
Pavuk 2012: P. Pavuk, Mittelgriechenland und Korinthia in der ausgehenden MBZ und frühen SBZ, in: P. Pavuk – B. Horejs (eds), Mittel- und spätbronzezeitliche Keramik Griechenlands. Sammlung Fritz Schachermeyr, Faszikel 3. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse 439, Veröffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission 31, Vienna 2012, 40-88.
Philippa-Touchais et al. 2010: A. Philippa-Touchais – G. Touchais – S. Voutsaki – J. Wright (eds), Mesohelladika. La Grèce continentale au Bronze Moyen. Actes du colloque international par l’École française d’Athènes, en collaboration avec l’American School of Classical Studies at Athens et le Netherlands Institute in Athens, Athènes 8-12 mars 2006, BCH Suppl.52, Athènes 2010.
Santillo-Frizell 1980: B. Santillo-Frizell, An Early Mycenaean Settlement at Asine. The Late Helladic IIB-IIIA1 Pottery, Göteborg 1980.
Santillo-Frizell 1996: B. Santillo-Frizell, Mycenaean Asine: A question of IIB or not IIB, in: E. De Miro – L. Godart – A. Sacconi (eds), Atti e memorie del secondo Congresso internazionale di micenologia, Roma-Napoli 14-20 ottobre 1991, vol.3, Incunabula Graeca 98, Rome 1996, 1287-1293.
Souyoudzoglou-Haywood 1999: C. Souyoudzoglou-Haywood, The Ionian Islands in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age 3000-800 BC, Liverpool 1999.
Stavropoulou-Gatsi – Karageorghis 2003: M. Stavropoulou-Gatsi – V. Karageorghis, Imitations of Late Bronze Age Cypriot ceramics from Patras-Pagona, RDAC 2003, 95-103.
Tartaron 2004: T. F. Tartaron, Bronze Age Landscape and Society in Southern Epirus, Greece, Oxford 2004.
Van Effenterre – Jannoray 1938: H. van Effenterre – J. Jannoray, Fouilles de Krisa (Phocide), BCH 62 (1938), 110-148.
Vitale 2008: S. Vitale, Ritual drinking and eating at Late Helladic IIIA2 Early Mitrou, East Lokris. Evidence for Mycenaean feasting activities?, in: L. A. Hitchcock – R. Laffineur – J. Crowley (eds), DAIS. The Aegean Feast. Proceedings of the 12th International Aegean Conference, University of Melbourne, Centre for Classics and Archaeology, 25-29 March 2008, Aegaeum 29, Liège2008,229-237.
Wace – Thompson 1912: A. J. B. Wace – M. S. Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly, Cambridge 1912.
Wardle 1977: K. A. Wardle, Cultural groups of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in north-west Greece, Godisnjak Sarajevo 15 (1977), 153-199.
Wardle et al. 1980: K. A. Wardle– P. Halstead–G.Jones,Excavations at Assiros,1975-9: A settlement site in Central Macedonia and its significance for the prehistory of South-East Europe, ABSA75(1980) 229-267.
Wardle – Wardle 2003: K. A. Wardle – D. Wardle, Prehistoric Thermon. Pottery of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, in: N. Kyparissi-Apostolika – M. Papakonstantinou (eds), The Periphery of the Mycenaean World, 2nd International Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Lamia 26-30 September 1999, Athens 2003, 147-156.







Printfriendly